Plant Chemistry and Pharmacological applications of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Camel foot tree): A Review

  • Charu Bharti Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharat Institute of Technology, Partapur Bypass Meerut, 250103, U.P., India
  • Nasiruddin Ahmad Farooqui Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Meerut, 250001, U.P., India.
  • Raj Kumar Department of Pharmacy, Samarth Institute of Education and Technology, Meerut, 250002, U.P., India
  • Shrestha Sharma Department of Pharmaceutics, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Gurugram, 122413, Haryana, India
  • Pankaj Gupta Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, K.R. Mangalam University, Gurugram, 122103, Haryana, India


Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Camel foot tree) is an average sized deciduous tree. It is commonly known as “kachnar”. It belongs to the most nascent family “caesalpiniaceae”. It is a medicinal plant and widely used by the Indian tribes in the form of extract of leaves, buds, flowers, stem bark, stem, root bark, root and seeds. Mountain ebony is popular in Unani, Ayurveda and Homeopathy system of medicine for curing different types of disease. All crudes have been evaluated (alcoholic and aqueous extract) of aerial parts of B. variegate Linn. for in-vitro and in-vivo activity. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from plant parts like flavonoids, glycoside, steroids, tannins and reducing sugar. The numerous prominent pharmacological activities have been also reported like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, nephroprotective action, immunomodulatory and wound healing effect. In this review, a detail inclusive screening study of chemical constituents of B. variegata Linn. and their pharmacological importance are discussed.

Keywords: Mountain Ebony, Phytochemical screening, Aerial plant parts, Kachnar, Pharmacological activity


1. Sahu G, Gupta PK. A review on Bauhinia Variegata. Linn. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2012; 3:48-51.
2. Gamble JS. Flora of the Presidency of Madras, Vol.2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.1956.
3. Negi A, Sharma N, Pant R, Singh MF. Determination of total phenol content of the stem bark of B.V. linn. An approach to standardization. The pharma Research. 2012; 7:16-22.
4. Kumar V, Eswarappa B, Yadav DB, Jayadevaiah KV, Basavaraja HS. Isolation of photo-constituents from the stem of B.V. linn. Pharma tutor Magazine 2014; 2:1-10.
5. Rice –Evans R. Flavonoids antioxidant, Current Medicinal Chemistry.2001; 8:797- 807
6. Mack M, Ndhlala AR, Finnie JF, Staden JV. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birrea and Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) extract. Food Chemistry. 2010;123: 69-76.
7. Hakkim F, Lukmanul C, Shankar G, Girija S. Chemical composition and antioxidant property of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) Leaves, stems, and inflorescence and there in vitro callus cultures. J. Agricultural and food chemistry. 2009; 55(22): 9109-9117.
8. Gupta AK, Vidyapati T, Chauhan JS. 5, 7 – Dihydroxyflavonone -4 -o-Α –L- rhanmopyranosyl – β – D- glucopyranoside from the stem of Bauhinia Variegata. Ind. J. Chem. 1979; 18:85-86
9. Prakash A, khosa RL. Chemical studies on Bauhinia Variegata. Curr.Sci.1976; 45:705-13.
10. Prakash A, Khosa RL. Netuera constituents of BahiniaVariegata. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopath, 1978; 13:96-97.
11. Duret S, Paris RR. The flavonoid of several species of Bauhinia. Plant Medicinal Phytotherapy. 1977; 11: 213-216.
12. Gupta AK, Chauhan JS. Constituents from the stem of Bauhinia Variegate. Nat. Acad. Sci. let. 1984; 7:174-76.
13. Ravindra G, Dhake AS. Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Mountain Ebony): A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 2009; 9(3): 207-216.
14. Cechinel FV. Chemical composition and biological potential of plants from the genus Bauhinia." Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2009;23(10): 1347-1354.
15. Yadav RN, Reddy VMS. A New Flavone Glycoside, 5- hydroxyl 7,3’,4’,5’- Tatra Methoxyflavone 5-o- β – D- xylopyranosyl– (1-2) –α – L –Rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia Variegata Linn. J Asian Nat prods Res 2001; 3: 1-11.
16. Singh RS, Pandey HS, Ghanshyam. Two new long chain compound from Bauhinia Variegata linn. Ind. J chem. 2006; 45:2151-2153.
17. Singh KL, Singh DK, Singh VK. Multidimensional Uses of Medicinal Plant Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata Linn.). Am. J. Phyto. Clin. Ther. 2016; 4: 58-72.
18. Azevedol CR, Maciel FM, Silva LB, Ferreira ATS, etal. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin like protein from leaves of Bauhinia Variegata linn. Brazilian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2006; 39: 1435-1444.
19. Mukherjee D, Laloraya MM. Keto acids and free amino acids during leaf growth in Bauhinia purpurea L. Experientia. 1977; 33: 304-305.
20. Saleh NAM, Ishak MS. Anthocynanis of some leguminosae flowers and their effect on colour variation. Phytochemistry. 1976; 15: 835 –836
21. Chan YS, Ng TB. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2015; 175:75-84.
22. Kumar YR, Rajani GP. Analgesic and anti-ulcer activities of ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Bauhinia variegata Linn, Int. J. Pharm. 2011; 7(5):616–622
23. Reddy-Mopuru VB, Reddy MK, Gunasekar D, Caux C. A flavanone and a dihydrodibenzoxepin from Bauhinia variegata." Phytochemistry. 2003; 64(4): 879-882.
24. MMJ VK, Isolation of phytoconstituents from the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn, Pharma tutor pharmacy infused, 2014; 2:2347-7881.
25. Mishra A, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Saxena AK, Pandey AK. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. BioMed. Res. Int. 2013;
26. Mishra AK, Mishra A, Kehri HK, Sharma B, Pandey AK. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds. Annals. Clin. Microbio. Antimicro. 2009;8(1): 1-7.
27. Kew KSM, Neivashini XC, Nabila OP, Khan NH. Qualitative study on the phytochemical constituents of the flower buds of Bauhinia variegata. J. Pharma. Res. 2018;2(1): 47-51.
28. Kumar SB, Bhat I. Apoptosis and flow cytometric studies of Bauhinia Variegata bark extract. A. J. Pharma clin. Res.2014; 7: 1-11.
29. Agrawal RC, Pandey S. Evaluation of Anticarcinogenic and Antimutagenic Potential of Bauhinia variegate Extract in Swiss Albino Mice. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention. 2009; 10: 1-9.
30. Pandey S, Agrawal RC. Chemopreventive potential of Bauhinia variegata flower extract against DMBA-induced skin papilloma genesis in mice" Pharmacology online.2010;1: 39-46.
31. Pandey S. In vivo antitumor potential of extracts from different parts of Bauhinia variegata linn. Against b16f10 melanoma tumour model in c57bl/6 mice. Appl. Cancer Res.2017;37(1): 1-14.
32. Kanak S, Verma AK. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anticancer activities of menthol extract of in vivo and vitro grown Bauhinia Variegata Linn, Int. Res. J. Bio. Sci. 2012; 16:26-30.
33. Mali RG, et al. Evaluation of Bauhinia Variegata linn stem bark for anthelmintic and antimicrobial properties; J Nat Rem. 2008; 8:39-43.
34. Gayathri G, Saraswathy A, Krishnamurthy V. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant Bauhinia variegata Linn. Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 2011;1(4): 400-408.
35. Koteswara RY, Fang SH, Tzeng YM. Anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids and a triterpene caffeate isolated from Bauhinia variegata." Phytotherapy research. 2008;22(7): 957-962.
36. Negi A, Sharma N, Singh MF. "Spectrum of pharmacological activities from Bauhinia variegata: a review." Journal of Pharmacy Research.2012;5(2): 792-797.
37. Sharma RK. Pharmacological evaluation of Bauhinia Variegate linn for wound healing and nephroprotective activity. MSC thesis, Rajiv Gandhi University of health Science, Karnataka 2010.
38. Kapoor R et al. Anti-ulcer effect of Bauhinia variegates linn. in rats. J. Nat. Rem. 2003; 3: 215-217.
39. Sharma RK, Rajani GP, Sharma V, Komala N. "Effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats." Ind. J. Pharm. Edu. Res. 20011; 45(2): 192-198.
40. Ghaisas MM, et al. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegate Linn. Int. J. Pharm. 2009; DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.49379
41. Al Snafi AE. The Pharmalcogical Importance of Bauhinia variegates. A Review IJPSR 2013; 4: 160-164.
42. Ghias U, Sattar S, Rauf A. Preliminary phytochemical, in vitro pharmacological study of Bauhinia alba and Bauhinia variegata flower. Middle-East J. Med. Plants Res.2012; 4:75-79.
43. Rajani GP, Purnima A. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Ind. J. Pharmacology. 2009;41(5): 227-37.
44. Bopanna KNJ, Sushma KG, Balaraman R, Rathod SP. Antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemia effects of neem seed kernel powder on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Indian journal of Pharmacology.1997;29(3): 162-.
45. Khare, Chandrama P. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.
46. Pandey S, Agrawal RC, Maheshwari S. In-vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn" International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2012,2(2): 1-5.
47. Sharma N, Bhardwaj R, Kumar S, Kaur S. Evaluation of Bauhinia variegates linn. Bark fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and protective effect against H2O2 –induced oxidation damage to Pbr322 DNA. African J Pharm Pharmacology. 2011; 5: 1494-1500.
48. Jash SK, Roy R, Gorai D. Bioactive constituents from Bauhinia variegata Linn." Int J Pharm Biomed Res.2014; 5(2): 51-54.
49. Chandra, RT, Chaubey S, Dash S, Kumar GR. Kanchnara (Bauhinia variegata linn): a critical review. Int J Ayurveda Pharm Res. 2015;3(7): 39-46.
50. Bhaskar B. Free radical scavenging activity of bark extract of Bauhinia variegates L. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2011; 3:64-66
51. Negi A, Sharma N, Singh MF. Spectrum of pharmacological activities from Bauhinia variegata: a review." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2012;5(2): 792-797.
143 Views | 98 Downloads
How to Cite
Charu Bharti, Nasiruddin Ahmad Farooqui, Raj Kumar, Shrestha Sharma, and Pankaj Gupta. “Plant Chemistry and Pharmacological Applications of Bauhinia Variegata Linn. (Camel Foot tree): A Review”. Current Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 1, Apr. 2022, pp. 01-11, doi:10.24092/CRPS.2022.120101.
Review Articles