Chronotherapeutic And Time Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

  • Shivam Tayal Sagar Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Jaipur Road, Gandhinagar, Bhopal (M.P.)


Cirrcadian rhythm are an adaptive phenomena relating to predictabe changes in environmental factors that regulate many body functions like metabolism, sleep pattern, hormone production and physiology. Synchronizing drug delivery in a consistent manner with body’s circadian rhythm is the basic concept for chronotherapeutic drug delivery system. The safety and efficacy of a drug can be improved by conducting the peak plasma concentration with the circadian rhythm of the body. The time controlled or pulsatile drug delivery systems are the best approach for chemotherapy. It offers rapid and transient release of certain molecules within short period which is a time and site specific drug delivery system. These systems delivers the drug at the right time in the right amount for patient suffering from circadian phase dependent disorders like asthma, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, arthritic, epilepsy etc. So various systems like osmotic and coated system are being made.

Keywords: Cirrcadian rhythm, Chronotherapeutic, Pulsatile drug delivery.


1. Lemmer B. Chronopharmacokinetics: Implication for drug treatment. J Pharm Pharmacol.1999; 51: 887-90.
2. Shigehiro O, Nobuya O, Jian GS, Shun H. Chronopharmacological study of KESI-TO components in mice. Life science. 1998; 62(22):2057-2064.
3. Lemmer B, Labrecque G. Chronopharmacology and Chronotherapeutics: Definitions and Concepts. Chronopharmacology International. 1987; 4(3): 319-329.
4. Moore-Ede, Martin C, Sulszman FM, Fuller CA. The clocks that time vs.physiology of the circadian timing system. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (1982).
5. Lalwani A, Santani D. Pulsatile drug delivery systems. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2002; 69(4): 489-497.
6. Belgamwar VS, Gaikwad MV, Patil GB, Khurana S. Pulsatile drug delivery systems. Asian J Pharm. 2008; 2(3): 489-497.
7. Somani VG, Shahi SR, Udavant YK, Atram SC, Satpute R, Shinde NM. A floating pulsatile drug delivery system based on hollow calcium pectinate beads. Asian J Ppharm. 2009; 3: 120-124.
8. Chien YW. Rate-controlled drug delivery systems. Indian J Pharm Sci. 1988; 50(2): 63-88.
9. Rodrguez M, Vila-Jato JL, Torres D. Design of a new multiparticulate system for potential site-specific and controlled drug delivery to the colonic region. J Control Release. 1998; 55: 67-77.
10. Bodmeier R. Tableting of coated pellets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1997; 43: 1-8.
11. Chein YW. Novel drug delivery system. Second edition, Vol II. New York, Marcel Dekker., (1992) 139-196.
12. Chien YW. Potential development and new approaches in oral controlled release drug delivery system. Drug Dev Ind Pharm.1983; 9(7): 1291-1330.
13. Rubinstein A, Tirosh B, Baluom M, Nassar T, David A. The rationale for peptide drug delivery to the colon and the potential of polymeric carriers as effective tools. J Control Release. 1995; 46: 59-73.
14. Krogel I, Bodmeir R. Pulsatile drug release from an insoluble capsule body controlled by erodible plug. Pharm Res. 1998; 15: 474-81.
15. Verma RK, Krishna DM, Garg S. Formulation aspects in the development of osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems. J Control Release. 2002; 79: 7-27.
16. Windheuser J, Cooper J. The pharmaceutics of coating tablets by compression. J. American pharm Assoc. 2006; 45 (8): 542 - 545.
17. Sakae O, Naosuke M, Yuichi N, Hiroyasu K. Dry coating: An innovative enteric coating method using a cellulose derivative. Eur J Pharm. Biopharm. 1999; 47(1): 51-59.
18. Eiji F, Uemura K, Kobayashi M. Studies on applicability of press coated tablet using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in the outer shell for timed release preparations. J Control Release. 2000; 68: 215-23.
19. Lin SY, Lin YY, Chen KS. Permeation behavior of Salbutamol sulphate through hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes embedded by thermoresponsive cholestryl oleyl carbonate. Pharm Res. 1996; 13: 914-919.
20. Korsmeyer R, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas N. Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. Int J Pharm 1983, 15: 25-35.
21. Bussemer T, Dashevsky A, Bodimeir R. A pulsatile drug delivery system based on rupturable coated hard gelatin capsules. J Control Release. 2003; 93: 331- 339.
22. Theeuwes F. Elementary osmotic pump. J. Pharm. Sci. 1975; 4(12) : 1987-1991.
75 Views | 75 Downloads
How to Cite
Tayal, S. “Chronotherapeutic And Time Controlled Drug Delivery Systems”. Current Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 1, no. 1, Dec. 2011, pp. 2-6,
Review Articles